Zhuangyuan Jetton, Moon-cake Gambling and Modern Legacy of Imperial Examinations Customs
【中文摘要】厦门中秋博饼习俗并不是由郑成功部属洪旭所发明,而是从明清时期全国多数地区都有的博“状元筹”或“状元签”的科第习俗演化而来。博状元游戏源远流长,其传播经历了从学子文人卜巧求运的雅趣到庶民家庭团圆助兴活动的演变过程。闽南一带以科名月饼取代竹制或骨制、象牙制筹条,并将博戏时节从春节前后移到中秋,使这种别致的科举文化习俗得以存留至今,这是古代科举文化现代遗存的典型事例,有其独特性和特别的价值,不仅为我们了解和研究科举制度的社会影响提供了“活化石”,而且保存了一种具有鲜明中华特色的娱乐种类,为民众提供了一种老少皆宜、雅俗共赏、寓教于乐的活动。 【Abstract】Moon-cake gambling in Xiamen was not invented by Hong Xu, an officer under Zheng Chenggong. Rather, this particular game evolved gradually from the Zhuangyuan jetton of the Imperial Examination customs which were practiced in most regions in the Ming and Qing dynasties. Zhuangyuan gambling has a long history, transforming all the way from its original purpose of imperial examinees seeking good luck to a fun game at family reunions. In Southern Fujian, especially in the Xiamen area, this special Imperial Examination custom has been thriving, though the gambling jetton has been replaced by moon cakes bearing the names of scholar honors won in the Imperial Examinations, and the time of the game changed from the Spring Festival to the Mid-Autumn Festival. The extraordinary modern legacy of the traditional Imperial Examinations culture has a special value, not only in providing a living fossil for the understanding and research of the social influence of the Imperial Examinations, but also in preserving an entertainment game with distinctive Chinese characteristics.