On the Constitutionalization and Inner Structure of the Public Trust of Natural Resources in the United States
- 2016年第二卷 
【中文摘要】公共信托法律制度的功能在于保护公众对自然资源的期望，以防不稳定的变化。公共信托理论原本是美国普通法上的一项制度，各州将其宪法化强化了这一理念：公共信托理论是不断发展的，它可以不断扩大以满足社会的变化，回应自然资源环境保护中的新问题。在公共信托理论的法律关系中，委托、受托和受益的三重性是理解公共信托目的之关键。在自然资源这类公共信托财产上，政府作为受托人既承担着私信托法所类推之信托责任，也承担着普通法上的积极和消极责任；法院既要对侵犯公共信托资源的政府行为进行司法审查，也要对私主体侵犯公共信托资源的行为进行监督。公共信托理论也要求个体作为公众成员承担保护公共信托资源的社会责任。 【Abstract】The function of the legal doctrine of the public trust is to protect the public expectation on natural resources against destabilizing changes. The public trust doctrine was a system of U.S. common law, the constitutionalization of which gives credence to the notion that the public trust doctrine is constantly evolving. The nature of the public trust is to expand to account for social changes to respond to new problems in the environmental protection of natural resources. In the legal relation of the public trust doctrine, the tri-fold of the trust, the trustee and the beneficiary is the key to understand the purpose of the public trust. According to the public trust doctrine, government as a trustee of the public trust assumes fiduciary duty of private trust law,and also positive and negative responsibility of common law. The court should conduct a judicial review of the government acts violating public trust resources, but also supervise the behavior of public trust resources. The public trust doctrine also requires the individual as member of the public to protect public trust resources of social responsibility.