Port State Responsibility for Combating Vessel-Source Pollution: Enforcement and Safeguard Mechanisms
【中文摘要】：在应对船舶污染方面，港口国相对于船旗国和沿海国而言，具有一些无可比拟的优势。1982 年《联合国海洋法公约》制定之前，国际上保护海洋环境公约对港口国责任的规定，通常限于对在港外国船舶的调查权，而对违章事件提起司法程序的权力则由船旗国拥有。《联合国海洋法公约》扩大了港口国的责任，规定港口国可对停靠其港口的外国船舶在公海或其他国家管辖水域内的污染行为执行可适用的国际法。而且港口国监督制度也在实践中发挥了防止和处置船舶污染的积极作用。但是港口国在监督船舶污染方面仍存在不足之处，亟需予以完善。 【Abstract】Port States have unparalleled advantages over flag and coastal States in vessel-source pollution prevention, reduction and control. Prior to the 1982 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS), international conventions concerning marine environment protection, when addressing the issue of port State responsibilities, only granted a port State the power to investigate a foreign vessel within one of its ports, while the flag State had the right to institute proceedings against the vessel. UNCLOS expanded the responsibilities of port States in this regard, saying that port States could enforce applicable international law against visiting foreign vessels for pollution offences committed on the high seas or in the waters under the jurisdiction of other States. Moreover, the port State control regime has played a positive role in preventing and controlling vessel-source pollution. However, there are still deficiencies in port State control of vessel-source pollution; and these deficiencies desperately need to be improved.