Exploitation of Resources in the Area and the Sponsoring State Responsibility: New Developments in China's Legislative Work Concerning the Deep Sea
【中文摘要】规范“区域”资源勘探开发的国际法律制度发展较快，除《联合国海洋法公约》及其执行协定之外，巳经制定了关于多金属结核、富钴结壳和硫化物的勘探规章。国际海洋法法庭就第17号案发表的“咨询意见”，催生了一些国家，特别是发展中国家关于担保国责任的国内法。在此背景下，中国出台了《中华人民共和国深海海底区域资源勘探开发法》，该法是中国首部关于“区域”资源勘探和开发的专门立法，对适用范围、“区域”资源的勘探开发、环境保护、海洋科研与资源调查、监督检查及法律责任等方面做出了规定，为中国企业参与国际海底 区域资源勘探和开发活动提供了有力保障。 【Abstract】The international legal regimes designed to regulate the exploration and exploitation of resources in the Area have undergone a rapid development. Apart from the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea and the Agreement Relating to the Implementation of Part XI thereof, regulations have been adopted on prospecting and exploration for polymetallic nodules, cobalt-rich crusts and polymetallic sulphides. The “Advisory Opinion”，which was rendered by the International Tribunal for the Law of the Sea with respect to Case No.17, has prompted some States, especially developing States, to promulgate national laws concerning sponsoring State responsibility. Against this backdrop, China enacted the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Exploration and Exploitation of Resources in Deep Seabed Area, which can be listed as the first special law that China has made to regulate the exploration and exploitation of resources in the Area. This law contains provisions in respect of the following areas: the application scope of the law; exploration and exploitation of resources in the Area; environmental protection; marine scientific research and resources investigation; inspection and supervision; and legal liability. It has strongly underpinned the Chinese enterprises’ participation in the exploration and exploitation activities in the international seabed area.