Understanding “Women” Problem：Breaking through the Bottleneck of the Feminist Movement
- 性别与文学研究 
【中文摘要】女性主义运动由18世纪末至今，经历三个主要浪潮。前两个浪潮，女性主义者先驱努力争取男女平权，在困难中取得成绩，在世界多国争取到女性投票权、女性教育权、家庭财产权等。但在第二次浪潮末期后，却遇到一些瓶颈，保守主义、自由主义和激进女性主义者间争论连连，不同国家、不同种族、不同性向和不同社会阶层的女性主义组织行动与诉求难于一致。本文以为这是第二波女性主义运动理论上的不足使然，本质论观点令任何“女人”定义都注定具有排斥性，无可避免地把某些它要代表的“女性”边缘化。本文发现，巴特勒提出的性别戏仿策略似乎突破了这一瓶颈，但实践效果不明，然而日本少女文艺的性 别实践，可能还更接近巴特勒描绘的理想。 【Abstract】It is generally agreed that the Feminist Movement started at the end of 18th century underwent three waves.In the first two waves, pioneering feminists fought hard for equal rights between women and men and achieved certain successes.However,when it comes to the end of the second wave, the Movement found itself stuck by a bottleneck. Conservative, liberal and radical feminists were embroiled into endless debates, and the mainstream women right organizations found themselves unable to unite women from different races, women with different sexuality and women from different classes.This paper points out that the problem is the result of the inadequacy inherent in the feminist conceptions employed by the second wave feminists.Any essentialist conception of “women” unavoidably marginalizes certain “women” that the term is meant to represent. Butler's parody strategy is one that may in theory breakthrough the bottleneck, but the outcome in actions is still unclear. On the other hand, the gender practice found in the Japanese Shōjo Literature and Arts may be even closer to the utopia envisioned by Butler than her own strategy.