Rethinking the New Deal in the Context of Wu Zhiying's Philanthropy for Education in the Late Qing Dynasty
- 2016年 
【中文摘要】清末新政包括教育改革,涉及废除科举制度及兴办新式学堂等。桐城世家吴芝瑛根据父亲遗愿捐产助学,拟筹办以父亲名号命名鞠隐小学堂,此本应时代潮流之义举,受两江总督兼南洋大臣周馥支持,吴氏乡里却以立嗣延续香火而非议,显系宗法势力反弹。此非议受桐城县令及新任安徽巡抚恩铭的支持。由此吴芝瑛捐产助学暂受挫,桐城文法与宗法制度仍在桐城乃至安徽根深蒂固,安徽官场与清廷权力之间盘根错节的派系是非致吴芝瑛捐产助学义举不可预测,鞠隐小学堂得以筹办竟与恩铭被刺等官场变动有着暗合的节奏。此折射筹办新式教育等清末新政面对地方势力多重牵制,亦涉革命风潮语境中官僚之间派系之争。 【Abstract】The New Deal of the late Qing Dynasty included educational reforms, abolishment of the imperial examination system, and establishment new-style schools. Honoring his late father's wishes, Wu Zhiying, a member of the nobility of Tongcheng, made donations to education and named Juyin Primary School after his father. His philanthropic acts, considered to be following the trend of the times, were supported by Zhou Fu, Viceroy of Liangjiang and Minister of Nanyang,but ran into strong opposition from his townsfolk who insisted that Wu adopt an heir to continue the family line. The opposition, a sign of the resurgence of the power of the patriarchal clan system, was backed by the Magistrate of Tongcheng County and by En Ming, the newly appointed Governor of Anhui. Consequently, Wu Zhiying's philanthropy was obstructed, reflecting the power of the deep-seated legal institutions and patriarchal clan systems in Tongcheng and even in Anhui. The complicated factionalism in Anhui officialdom and the Qing imperial court cast uncertainty over Wu Zhiying's philanthropy for education, and Juyin Primary School was established in a time of great upheavals in officialdom, such as the assassination of En Ming. These events indicated that the New Deal in the late Qing Dynasty, including the establishment of new-style schools, was not only blocked by local forces, but also influenced by the factionalism in officialdom in the context of revolutionary waves.