Responsibility for Wars and Political Interpretations of Song Shenzong's Boundary Expansion
- 2016年 
【中文摘要】宋神宗朝与交趾、河湟和西夏间的战争须以宋神宗“恢复汉唐旧疆”的整体视野去认识,不能孤立地看待。从开边的整体计划和目标而言,宋神宗开边全面失败。宋人对战争责任的评说多是皇权政治和华夷观念下“责不在君”和“曲不在华”的政治解说。北宋与交趾、河湟、西夏等政权相互交往时秉持着相互认同的华夷观念和朝贡礼仪,其国际关系格局是垂直结构和等级制,所寓含的逻辑与近代主权国家观念和不干涉内政原则下的平等和水平关系完全不同,不能以现代国际关系的话语解释宋神宗开边问题。 【Abstract】 The wars waged against Jiaozhi, Hehuang and Xixia by the Song Dynasty under the reign of Shenzong must be understood within the broad context of Song Shenzong's proposition of “restoring the former territorial boundaries of the Han and Tang Dynasties”, and should not be perceived in isolation. In terms of its overall organizing and its purposes,Song Shenzong's boundary expansion was a total failure. The interpretations of the responsibility for wars offered by people of the Song Dynasty were mostly political exonerations necessitated by the imperial rule and Hua vs. Yi distinction, such as the notions that “the responsibility does not rest with the emperors” and “Zhong Hua is not to blame”. The Northern Song Dynasty and Jiaozhi, Hehuang and Xixia mutually recognized the notion of the Hua vs. Yi distinction and the rites of tribute;the international relations between these countries were vertical and hierarchical, and the logic it entailed was entirely different from that of the concept of modern sovereign states; moreover, there were the principles of non-interference in the internal affairs of states and equality in international relations and horizontal relations between states. As such, the issue of Song Shenzong's boundary expansion cannot be explained within the discourse of contemporary international state relationships.