Formation and Evolution of the Imperial Examination Culture Circle in East Asia
【中文摘要】唐宋两代放宽条件以附名榜尾的方式录取域外举子为宾贡进士,体现了中朝统治者怀柔远人的政策,对吸引外邦士人到中国来求学和应举、扩大中华文化的影响都起过重要的作用。日本最早仿行科举,也是实行科举时间最短的国家。朝鲜王朝的科举甚至比明清时期的中国还更为频繁开科,在社会中占据核心地位。越南的科举制延续到1919 年,是世界上科举制度的终结地。琉球也曾实行过科举制度。12—19世纪,中、韩、越三国连同琉球构成了一个独特的东亚科举文化圈。正是由于科举传统的延续,东亚才能够演变形成在世界上颇为特色鲜明的考试文化圈。 【Abstract】In the Tang and Song Dynasties, Chinese sovereigns relaxed the requirements of admission for successful imperial examination candidates from foreign countries by putting their names at the end of the list of successful candidates as Bin Gong Jin Shi. This constituted a conciliatory policy for attracting more foreigners to China to study and take the imperial examination. This policy played an important role in expanding the influence of Chinese culture. Japan was the first country to adopt China's imperial examination system. However, the system in the Japan was the shortest-lived. The Lee Dynasty in South Korea held imperial examinations even more frequently than the Ming and Qing Dynasties in China did,consolidating the central position of the imperial examination system in Korean society. The imperial examination system was kept in place until 1919 in Vietnam, the last country in the world to end the system. For a certain period of time, Okinawa also implemented the imperial examination system. From the 12th to the 19th century, China, South Korea and Vietnam, along with Okinawa, together constituted a special cultural circle of the imperial examination system in East Asia. In part because of the sustained tradition of imperial examinations, East Asia has evolved into a distinctive examination culture circle in the world.