On the International Legal Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage
【中文摘要】近年来，越来越多的水下文化遗产受到未授权的打捞活动的干扰和破坏，因此，保护水下文化遗产的工作变得愈加迫切和重要。然而，21世纪以前，国际法并未系统地对水下文化遗产施加保护。参考一些有关文化财产的国际文书、海洋法、打捞法，我们可以发现，尽管保护水下文化遗产的工作已开始，但是这类保护工作还是存在很多不足和问题。《2001年保护水下文化遗产公约》的通过，标志着在水下文化遗产保护领域已经建立了一个比较健全的法律框架。该公约为水下文化遗产保护设立了一些重要制度，如就地保护、严格限制适用打捞法，以及专属经济区内和大陆架上的水下文化遗产管辖权制度。但是，在目前的国际法下，有关水下文化遗产保护的冲突依然存在，特别是涉及管辖权和所有权问题时。本文指出各国应采取何种行动来积极执行上述公约，并鼓励就相关问题进一步展开谈判，签署更多的合作协议。 【Abstract】Based on the fact that in recent years more and more underwater cultural heritage is disturbed and damaged by unauthorized activities directed towards it, protecting this kind of heritage has become ever more important and urgent, however underwater cultural heritage has not received systematic protection under international law until the 21st century. Referring to international instruments concerning cultural property, the law of the sea, and salvage law, this article argues that although efforts to protect underwater cultural heritage have begun, such protection has been accompanied by various defects and issues. The adoption of the 2001 Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage signifies the establishment of a relatively comprehensive legal framework in this regard.This convention created some significant regimes for the protection of underwater cultural heritage, including preservation in situ, strict restrictions on the application of salvage law, and rules relating to the jurisdiction over underwater cultural heritage within the exclusive economic zone and on the continental shelf. Under current international law, however, conflicts regarding the protection of underwater cultural heritage may still exist, especially concerning issues related to jurisdiction and ownership. This article recommends pathways for State action, inter alia, to proactively implement the 2001 Convention and to encourage further negotiations and cooperative agreements concerning relevant issues.