Observation and characterization of intermolecular homonuclear single-quantum coherences in liquid nuclear magnetic resonance
- 化学化工－已发表论文 
Intermolecular zero-quantum and double-quantum coherences (iZQCs and iDQCs) are frequently discussed in literature since they may provide novel contrast mechanisms in magnetic resonance imaging and possibilities for high-resolution spectra in an inhomogeneous and unstable magnetic field. In a previous paper [J. Chem. Phys. 115, 10769 (2001)], we have studied both theoretically and experimentally the properties of iZQC and iDQC nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) signals related to intermolecular dipolar interactions in two-component systems. In this paper, the investigation is extended to homonuclear intermolecular single-quantum coherences (iSQCs) from the second-order spin interactions, which have not been observed and studied previously. Selective excitation was used to suppress the strong conventional single-spin single-quantum signals. A combination of dipolar field treatment and Torrey equation was used to derive a general theoretical expression for the time evolution of spins with arbitrary flip angles of rf pulses. The expression was used to predict the optimal conditions for iSQCs among highly polarized spins in liquid. Dependence of the iSQC signals on the experimental parameters was measured and analyzed to verify the theoretical predictions. For the first time, signals from pure homonuclear two-spin iSQCs free of much larger conventional single-spin single-quantum signals, and intermolecular iSQC cross peaks in homonuclear pulsed-field gradient COSY experiments were observed and characterized, in one- and two-dimensional (1D and 2D) experiments, respectively. The use of coherence-selection gradients tilted at the magic angle results in the suppression of iSQC cross peaks. It provides strong evidence that the observed signals originate from distant dipolar interactions. Relaxation and diffusion properties of iSQCs in multiple-component samples were characterized and analyzed as well as the optimal rf flip angles. Theoretical and experimental results presented herein demonstrate that the signals from the homonuclear second-order iSQCs not only have a similar signal intensity as iZQCs or iDQCs, all of which are much stronger than that from three-spin iSQCs reported previously, but also provide spatial information related to dipolar correlation scales similar to iZQCs and iDQCs, which is not present in conventional SQC experiments. All 1D and 2D NMR experimental observations based on single- and multiple-component samples are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions. The quantitative study of iSQCs provides a better understanding of their unique mechanisms, and may find useful applications in NMR analyses such as sample purification and/or preparation of metabolites, biofluids, and natural compounds dissolved in nondeuterated solvents. (C) 2002 American Institute of Physics.