Evaluation of cadmium species lability using ion-pair reversed phase HPLC coupled on-line with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry
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Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) coupled on-line with an ion-pair reversed phase HPLC (IP-RP HPLC) was developed for determining the lability of Cd species. The IP-RP HPLC-ICP-MS system measures chromatographic behaviors of Cd species in the presence of different model complexing agents (L) with stability constants (log K(CdL)) from 3.8 to 19.0. Cd species with log K(CdL) higher than 16, between 8 and 16, and smaller than 8 was then classified into inert, moderately labile, and labile species, respectively. The conditional stability constants and dissociation rate constants were also estimated from their corresponding chromatographic behavior. This method was applied to evaluating the lability-dependent biouptake of different Cd species in Phaeodactylum tricornutum, a typical unicellular marine diatom. IP-RP HPLC-ICP-MS is a useful and promising technique for determining the lability of noncovalent-bonded metal species (such as Cd species) in the environment and for forecasting their corresponding bioavailability especially when their speciation cannot be rigorously controlled and measured. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.