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dc.contributor.author杨凌燕
dc.contributor.author郭建鹏
dc.date.accessioned2016-05-17T03:10:59Z
dc.date.available2016-05-17T03:10:59Z
dc.date.issued2014-5-20
dc.identifier.citation心理科学,2014,(3):158-167
dc.identifier.issn1671-6981
dc.identifier.otherXLKX201403024
dc.identifier.urihttps://dspace.xmu.edu.cn/handle/2288/110158
dc.description.abstract样例学习研究表明多重样例的学习效果好于单个样例,因为多重样例的对比通常都有利于学习。然而并不是所有的对比都同样有效。研究者关于如何有效设计多重样例得出了不一致的结论。通过综述已有关于多重样例学习的实证研究,总结出两个尚未得到解决的问题:(1)多重样例之间的相似或相异程度应该如何;(2)学生的先前知识在多重样例学习中的作用如何。首先,关于多重样例之间多大程度的相似或相异才能够促进学习,研究者得出了不同的结果。样例一般被认为是由表面(无关)特征和结构(相关)特征组成的。表面特征(如名称、事物、数字、表面概貌)与目标达成无关,结构特征(如数学法则、原理、解法、规则)与目标达成相关。多重样例表面和结构特征之间的相似度应该多大,已有研究尚未得出一致的结论。一方面,具有不同表面特征的多重样例能够帮助学习者注意到结构特征,提高相关认知负荷,并建构图式;表面特征很相似的多重样例有可能会模糊结构特征和表面特征之间的差异,不利于图式建构及未来的问题解决。另一方面,表面特征相似的多重样例不会增加学习者的工作记忆负担,能够帮助他们审辩、匹配结构特征;相异程度高的多重样例不利于识别样例结构上的共同点。其次,研究者对学生先前知识在多重样例学习中的作用也没有得出一致的结论,主要有以下几种不同的观点。第一,先前知识较低的学生不能受益于多重样例对比,尤其是复杂和不熟悉的样例。第二,先前知识较高的学生能够受益于对比任何多重样例,而先前知识较低的学生只能受益于对比相异程度高的多重样例。第三,先前知识较高的学生受益于对比相异程度高的多重样例,而先前知识较低的学生则受益于对比相异程度低的样例。第四,学生的先前知识和多重样例的变异性之间不存在交互作用。我们综述了已有研究在上述问题上的局限性,并根据自己的实证研究结果提出了改善样例设计的建议。首先,样例设计应该关注对学生学习关键的属性和特征,并使用关键/不关键的分类来代替已有认知研究采用的表面/结构的分类。其次,学生在对比多个关键属性同时变异之前需要单独审辨出每个关键属性。如果学生没有先单独审辨出每个关键属性,同时变异就可能会造成超负荷而不利于学习。最后,具有不同先前知识的学生学习时感受到不同的关键属性,多重样例应该基于学生学习时的关键属性设计特定的变易范式以帮助学生学习。
dc.description.abstractResearchers have consistently shown that studying multiple examples is more effective than one example to promote learning because the comparison evoked by comparing multiple examples is generally good for learning.Not all comparisons,however,may equally be effective.Principles found in the literature for designing multiple examples remain ambiguous.This paper reviews experimental studies on learning from comparison of examples and identifies issues that have not been resolved:(a) how similar or different examples should be to facilitate learning,and(b) the role of students' prior knowledge in example-based learning.The review addresses these limitations and provides recommendations according to our empirical studies.First,example design should focus on aspects and features that are critical for student learning,and use the distinction of critical /uncritical instead of surface /structural.Second,students may need to separately discern each critical aspect before they can benefit from comparing simultaneous variation of these aspects.Third,students with different levels of prior knowledge may perceive different aspects of examples as critical for their learning.Examples should be designed according to aspects that are critical to specific students.Suggestions for future research are provided.
dc.description.sponsorshipbasedontheproject“AnInvestigationofCreatingEffectiveProblemContextinTeachingMathematics”supportedbyKeyProjectofMinistryofEducation;PlanofNationalScienceofEducationofChina(GIA117009)
dc.language.isozh_CN
dc.subject多重样例
dc.subject变异性
dc.subject先前知识对比
dc.subjectmultiple examples
dc.subjectvariability
dc.subjectprior knowledge
dc.subjectcomparison
dc.title多重样例变异性与先前知识对样例学习效果的影响述评(英文)
dc.title.alternativeThe Role of Variability and Prior Knowledge in Learning from Comparing Multiple Examples
dc.typeArticle


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