Calcium function and distribution during fertilization in angiosperms
Ge, Li Li
Tian, Hui Qiao
Russell, Scott D.（Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Oklahoma, Norman, Oklahoma 73019 USA ）
- 生命科学－已发表论文 
Calcium has an essential signaling, physiological, and regulatory role during sexual reproduction in flowering plants; elevation of calcium amounts is an accurate predictor of plant fertility. Calcium is present in three forms: (1) covalently bound calcium, (2) loosely bound calcium typically associated with fixed and mobile anions (ionic bonding); and (3) cytosolic free calcium-an important secondary messenger in cell signaling. Pollen often requires calcium for germination. Pollen tube elongation typically relies on external calcium stores in the pistil. Calcium establishes polarity of the pollen tube and forms a basis for pulsatory growth. Applying calcium on the tip may alter the axis; thus calcium may have a role in determining the directionality of tube elongation. In the ovary and ovule, an abundance of calcium signals receptivity, provides essential mineral nutrition, and guides the pollen tube in some plants. Calcium patterns in the embryo sac also correspond to synergid receptivity, reflecting programmed cell death in one synergid cell that triggers degeneration and prepares this cell to receive the pollen tube. Male gametes are released in the synergid, and fusion of the gametes requires calcium, according to in vitro fertilization studies. Fusion of plant gametes in vitro triggers calcium oscillations evident in both the zygote and primary endosperm during double fertilization that are similar to those in animals.