Growth and toxin production in batch cultures of a marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense HK9301 isolated from the South China Sea
- 海洋环境－已发表论文 
Nutritional and environmental conditions were characterized for a batch culture of the marine dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense HK9301 isolated from the South China Sea for its growth (cells ml(-1)), cellular toxin content (Qt in fmol cell(-1)) and toxin composition (mol%). Under a nutrient replete condition, Qt increased with cell growth and peaked at the late stationary phase. Toxin content increased with the nitrate concentration in the culture while it reached a maximum at 5 muM phosphate. When nitrate was replaced with ammonia, Qt decreased by 4.5-fold. Salinity and light intensity were important factors affecting Qt. The latter increased two-fold over the range of salinity from 15 to 30parts per thousand, while decreased 38% as light intensity increased from 80 to 220 muE m(-2) s(-1). Toxin composition varied with growth phase and culture conditions. In nutrient replete cultures, toxin composition varied greatly in the early growth phase (first 3 days) and then C1/C2, C3/C4 and GTX1 remained relatively constant while GTX4 increased from 32 to 46% and GTX5 decreased from 28 to 15%. In general, the composition of GTXs was affected in a much greater extent than C toxins by changes in nutrient conditions, salinity and light intensity. This is especially true with GTX4 and GTX5. These data indicate that the cellular toxin content and toxin composition of A. tamarense HK9301 are not constant, but that they vary with growth phase and culture conditions. Use of toxin composition to identify a toxigenic marine dinoflagellate is not always valid. The data also reveal that high salinity and low light intensity, together with high nitrate and low phosphate concentrations, would favor toxin production by this species. (C) 2004 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.